The Svalbard archipelago is the northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway. It lies completely within the Arctic Circle, so the sun is above the horizon for 24 hours a day from late April to late August.
The polar archipelago of Svalbard was first discovered by Willem Barentsz in 1596. Old maps exist but the detailed mapping of Svalbard started a little over 100 years ago. At this time Swedes and Russians carried out a major survey that was part of a project to determine the size and shape of the Earth. The Norwegian mapping of Svalbard started a few years later.